International Society for the Scientific Study of Human Subjectivity is the I4S academic website, community hub and resource platform. I relaunched the site in 2016 and am now maintaining and moderating it.

Akademie Res Publica

Akademie Res Publica (ARP) was a student initiative to foster political exchange, careers and commitment among scholars of the German National Academic Foundation. At ARP, we offered annual seminars and talks to bring together students, experts and politicians.


Eurolektionen was a collaborative, qualitative research and civics education project on european politics, history and culture in the continent’s schools, undertaken at the now defunct Berlin Studies Centre. Results are available in print from Wehrhahn as well as online.

qmethod R Package

Aiora Zabala’s qmethod implements Q analysis in the R language for statistical computing. I am contributing to the package.

CiviCon Citizen Conferences

CiviCon are Citizen Conferences where people puzzle over policy, and argue to find civil (dis)agreement. The first CiviCon was held in the summer of 2014 on the topic of taxation. It is also the field work to my dissertation.

Retractionwatch has two pieces out on alleged data irregularities in work published by social psychologist Jens Förster. They cite an unnamed (!) (LOWI?, UvA?) report dated 2012: These papers report 40 experiments involving a total of 2284 participants (2242 of which were undergraduates). We apply an F test based on descriptive statistics to test for linearity of means across three levels of the experimental design. Results show that in the vast majority of the 42 independent samples so analyzed, means are unusually close to a linear trend.


Planet Money has this slightly naive, but not entirely one-sided piece on TTIP and nontarrif trade barriers: Today on the show: why can’t you build a car that can be driven anywhere in the world? There might be a lot to dislike about how TTIP is negotiated (closed-doors, special interest, anyone?) Still, I don’t get the fundamental outrage against Investor State Dispute Settlements (ISDS). This, as in car safety regulation, is always the logic of economic integration, and it’s beautiful thing: trade makes us all richer, but sovereignty moves to a higher, international level.



More Publications

Wir berichten über einen bei der Deutschen SchülerAkademie (Bildung & Begabung GmbH) geplanten Kurs zum Thema 'Schule und Demokratie', bei dem Teilnehmende im Alter von 16--18 Jahren auf der Entwicklerplattform GitHub zusammen schreiben und lernen.

Eurolektionen asks: Are the schools of Europe a good school für the continent, united in diversity?

The choice and mastery of Q-specific software can be an important factor for a successful Q study. Q methodology includes some mathematic operations not easily accomplished with generic statistical software, and Q practitioners require custom interfaces to guide their analyses and interpretation.
32nd Annual Q Conference for the Scientific Study of Subjectivity

Rather than a technical method, factor rotation in Q is a deeply substantive operation: it constitutes a formal definition of how operant subjectivity is to be conceptualized.
32nd Annual Q Conference for the Scientific Study of Subjectivity


I enjoy teaching tremendously — and for selfish reasons, too: I’ve noticed that I only really understood a subject (or someone else’s understanding of it) if I have taught a class on it. I like it:

  • Interdisciplinary. Crossing disciplinary borders and venturing applications can deepen understanding, strengthen relevance and forge synthesis — but a rigorous foundation in a discipline always comes first. (For example, see e-democracy.)
  • Interactive. Meaningful visualizations, vibrant virtual and real discussion and the occasional movie segment can make teaching more effective, accessible and fun — but in technology and format, as elsewhere, form follows function. (For example, see gpc.)
  • In Writing (or Code). An idea does not exist independent of its written expression. Intensive reading and writing are hard, ideally deliberative practice for both teacher and student — but for the social sciences, at least, there are only very poor substitutes. (For example, see emile.)

Teaching Evaluations

Check out my evaluations on teacher rating sites.

Past Classes


This page is also available in german.

born 1983 in Bremen, Germany


2010 to date Bremen International Graduate School of Social Sciences (BIGSSS), Bremen (Germany):
PhD Fellow, Dissertation on taxation and democracy.
2008 – 2010 Hertie School of Governance, Berlin (Germany):
Graduate studies of Public Policy, MA thesis on progressive tax reform.
2008 – 2009 Berlin Studies Centre, Berlin (Germany):
Fellow, Project Eurolektionen, research on civic education in Europe.
2007 – 2008 University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA:
Graduate studies in social sciences.
2004 - 2007 Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany):
Received B.A. in Integrated Social Sciences.
1996 – 2003 Gymnasium Syke, Syke (Germany):
Graduated best in class.


2018 to date Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg (Germany):
Data Scientist and Research Associate to Prof. Sabine Pfeifer for Q Methodology.
2016 to 2018 University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany):
Data Scientist and Research Associate to Prof. Sabine Pfeifer for Q Methodology.
2015 - 2016 Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany):
Research Associate to Dr. Jan Lorenz working on Opinion Dynamics and Collective Decisions.
2014 Universität Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany):
Visiting Lecturer at the Department for Social Sciences for “Taxation and Democracy” seminar.
2010 – 2014 Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany):
Lecturer at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences for “German Politics & Culture” seminar.
2007 Collaboran Systems Gbr, Berlin (Germany):
Managing Partner, responsible for Product Design.
07-08/2006  Dacapo Strategy Consulting / Corporate Value Associates, Berlin (Germany):
Visiting Consultant. Assigned to a due diligence; adapted financial model.

Awards & Distinctions

2004 - 2010 German National Academic Foundation, Bonn (Germany):
Regular fellow.
2007 - 2008 Fulbright Commission, Berlin (Germany) / Washington, DC:
Fulbright fellow.
2004 - 2007 Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany):
Member of the President’s List

Volunteering & Service

2016 to date International Society for the Scientific Study of Human Subjectivity, Columbia, MO (USA):
Webmaster for
2003 to date Deutsche SchülerAkademie (Education & Talent Inc.), Bonn (Germany):
Course Instructor, Academy Manager at summer camp for gifted student.
2012 to 2013 Bremen International Graduate School of Social Sciences (BIGSSS), Bremen (Germany):
Fellow Representative.


  • LaTeX document preparation system
  • Git & Github source control management
  • R statistics programming language
  • Wordpress content management system



  • maximilian.held
  • WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Reichpietschufer 50, 10785 Berlin, Germany
  • Wednesday 10:00 to 13:00 or email for appointment